By Rosalind Mitchison
A terrific quantity for a person short of a brisk review of North Britain from the 12 months dot to the 20th century.
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Additional resources for A History of Scotland
1 24 1100–1286 But the Scottish king still wanted that English northern earldom. Both kings continued to chip in on any troubles that might afflict their neighbours. So in 1209 William nearly got an invasion from John, and compromised instead on a complicated financial and matrimonial bargain. In 1237 Alexander II, by appearing to join in Henry III of England’s Welsh and baronial troubles, secured the Treaty of York, abandoning Scottish claims to the northern counties for an estate in the north as Henry’s vassal.
These took the brunt of his attack, at first with the odds on the defenders, as in Buchan. Here after an unexpected victory Bruce systematically devastated the earldom; the ‘herschip’ or harrying of Buchan that, says Barbour in his great poem, men lamented for fifty years. Even if the direct slaughter of people was less than that of livestock, for a countryside with limited resources devastation and plunder in the depth of winter are equivalent to murder. The effect was such that the Gaelic speech of Buchan gave way to Scots as newcomers recolonized the land later.
Creation of a burgh means confirmation and definition of rights of trading, and strengthening them by monopoly, by the exclusion of others from trade in a defined area. A rampart or a wall is set up as protection for the privileged traders. Sometimes there may be a royal castle too. 2 In return for these advantages the burghs are expected to pay money, customs duties on important exports, and a rent or ‘ferme’. Towns were being founded all over twelfth-century Europe. Sometimes the aim was political.