By Daniela Giannetti, Bernard Grofman
In the early Nineties, significant electoral reforms happened in either Italy and Japan; each one changed a sort of “proportional illustration” (in which electorate solid a poll for a celebration record) with a “mixed member” procedure (in which electorate solid ballots for person applicants and social gathering lists). The reforms have been enacted by way of political elites within the context of divisions in the dominant social gathering, altering styles of get together aid, and celebration splits, in efforts to keep strength whereas responding to fees of corruption, clientelism, and shortage of responsibility. The reviews of either nations supply a laboratory during which to enquire the consequences and implications of the reforms, and, extra widely to investigate voter habit within the context of institutional swap. The advent presents an outline of post-WWII politics and electoral reform in Italy and Japan. In all the next 4 chapters, experts in Italian and eastern electoral politics are teamed as much as evaluation information either ahead of and after the reforms. inside of this comparative framework, the authors discover such subject matters as adjustments in celebration pageant, candidate choice mechanisms, and intra-party politics. The concluding bankruptcy considers the longer-term consequences—both expected and unanticipated—of the reforms. regardless of superficially related stipulations, the results within the international locations have been dramatically diverse: in Japan, the hot process has taken carry, with minor adjustments, whereas in Italy, there has been a reversion to a proportional illustration procedure. because the essays during this quantity show, to appreciate why related reforms had such varied results within the nations we needs to learn how electoral structures are embedded in broader institutional and social preparations, and think about the complicated interaction of political geography, political historical past, and the rational calculations of political actors.
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Extra resources for A Natural Experiment on Electoral Law Reform: Evaluating the Long Run Consequences of 1990s Electoral Reform in Italy and Japan
The electoral system in the two houses belonged to a category that was a hybrid of the PR and district election systems and thus presented no problem for the electoral strategy of the party. A different power balance between the two houses has influenced the coalition strategy of the largest party – the LDP – and its relationship with prospective coalition partners. To maintain the coalition with the CGP, the LDP was willing to increase the PR votes for the CGP in exchange for the support of the CGP for the LDP candidates in SMDs (Reed and Kay 2009).
2004). Districts included in two of the three main geopolitical areas into which Italy is usually divided 13 were basically noncompetitive. In the north, with the exception of the 1996 elections,14 right-wing candidates dominated in the plurality tier. However, in the 2001 elections, the 13 The north includes seven regions: Valle d’Aosta, Piedmont, Lombardy, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Trentino Alto Adige, and Liguria. The Red Belt includes four regions: Emilia Romagna, Tuscany, Marches, and Umbria.
The possibility that the shifting group basis of party support is a background cause of electoral reform is sometimes hinted at in the literature, but this awaits more rigorous analysis. Since the electoral reform of 1993 there is evidence of both dealignment, which is continued weakening of social cleavages, and of realignment, by which the religion, class, and regional cleavages have become associated with “new” parties. Japan: Change in the Structural Bases of Electoral Support for Parties It has been commonly understood that, under the “1955 system,” the LDP was supported by conservative sections of Japanese society such as senior citizens, rural residents, self-employed, and those in managerial positions.