By Michael Quinten
A one-stop, concise advisor on deciding on and measuring skinny movie thickness via optical methods.
This useful publication covers the legislation of electromagnetic radiation and interplay of sunshine with subject, in addition to the speculation and perform of thickness size, and sleek purposes. In so doing, it indicates the features and possibilities of optical thickness choice and discusses the strengths and weaknesses of dimension units in addition to their overview methods.
Following an advent to the subject, bankruptcy 2 provides the fundamentals of the propagation of sunshine and different electromagnetic radiation in area and topic. the most subject of this booklet, the selection of the thickness of a layer in a layer stack by way of measuring the spectral reflectance or transmittance, is taken care of within the following 3 chapters. the colour of skinny layers is mentioned in bankruptcy 6. ultimately, in bankruptcy 7, the writer discusses numerous commercial functions of the layer thickness dimension, together with high-reflection and anti-reflection coatings, photolithographic structuring of semiconductors, silicon on insulator, obvious conductive movies, oxides and polymers, skinny movie photovoltaics, and seriously doped silicon.
Aimed at commercial and educational researchers, engineers, builders and brands interested by all parts of optical layer and skinny optical movie dimension and metrology, approach keep an eye on, real-time tracking, and applications.
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–5):
Chapter 2 Propagation of sunshine and different Electromagnetic Waves (pages 7–57):
Chapter three Spectral Reflectance and Transmittance of a Layer Stack (pages 59–80):
Chapter four The Optical dimension (pages 81–119):
Chapter five Thin?Film Thickness selection (pages 121–140):
Chapter 6 the colour of skinny movies (pages 141–147):
Chapter 7 purposes (pages 149–185):
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Extra info for A Practical Guide to Optical Metrology for Thin Films
E1(0) represents the static dielectric constant of the material. 95) can be replaced by Sj v2j . 5 Â 1014 sÀ1, and oscillator strength S ¼ 1. 5 Â 1014 sÀ1, and oscillator strength S ¼ 1. At the resonance frequency, the imaginary part exhibits a maximum and rapidly decreases to the right and the left of the resonance frequency. Far from the resonance frequency, e2 vanishes. The real part decreases at high frequencies when approaching the resonance frequency and even becomes negative. In the vicinity of the resonance frequency, the real part changes very rapidly to high positive values from which it continuously decreases again when going to low frequencies.
The result is Jslit ðbÞ / b2 sin2 ððpb=lÞsin bÞ ððpb=lÞsin bÞ2 : ð2:59Þ The energy of the wave in the slit is distributed in the half space behind the slit and can be described by a squared sinc function sinc2(sin(b)). Only the minima of this always positive deﬁnite function are obvious. 56). 57). The higher the order n is, the smaller the deviation is. 5p). A special case is the maximum for sin(b) ¼ 0. 61). Up to now, we considered the slit only in one dimension, having a width b. In fact, the slit has also a height h and we can ﬁnd also diffraction in the vertical direction if the height h is sufﬁciently small.
91) is given as rj ¼ qj E0 ; mj ðv2j Àv2 Àivcj Þ ð2:92Þ with the resonance frequency vj ¼ Dj =mj. The macroscopic net polarizability P follows from all dipole moments pj ¼ qjrj in the sample volume V via P¼ 1X 1X Nj pj ¼ Nj qj rj ; V j V j ð2:93Þ from which we obtain the susceptibility xj for all Nj charges qj as 1 X Nj qj 1 : V j e0 mj ðv2j Àv2 Àivcj Þ 2 xj ðvÞ ¼ ð2:94Þ Here, Nj/V is the total number density of charges qj with mass mj and eigenfrequency vj. 7 Dielectric Function and Refractive Index MgO), with the corresponding ionic charges and masses.