By Sascha W. Felix
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10 mg NH3–N/l. 10 mg unionized ammonia (NH3-N) per litre at selected temperatures, salinity and pH. 1 mg/l unionized ammonia nitrogen in water at a constant pressure of 1 atmosphere at different values of temperature, salinity and pH (Wickins, 1976) are as follows: From the table it can be seen that pH has a major effect, with the percentage of toxic unionized ammonia being much greater at high pH than at low pH. 1 mg/l. 8 mg/l. 3 and in ponds with a good growth of phytoplankton, pH values of 9 and above are common in the late afternoon.
However, for salmon diets containing high levels of unsaturated fat (upto 35 per cent), levels of 350 ppm of vitamin E or more is used. , 1991), while a level of 300 meq/kg) significantly lowered the chemoluminescent response of head kidney phagocytes and increased mortality rates of the fish when challenged with Vibrio anguilirum. Biogenic Amines Microbial degradation of feed ingredients, especially fish-based, results in the possible production of toxic metabolites (Ruiter, 1995). Biogenic-amines are believed to be problematic substances such as tyramine, histamine, phenylethylamine as they can affect the metabolism of the animal in general and increase blood pressure in particular.
It has been reported that for P. 4 ppm when burrowing occurs. It was observed that in P. 2 ppm. When the immobile shrimp were placed in well-aerated tanks, about 50 per cent recovered. 2 ppm should be considered as a base at which shrimp start to die with even a short exposure. Regarding the long-term effects of sub-lethal dissolved oxygen levels, it is reported that white areas of degenerated tissue in the tail muscles of shrimps could be associated with low levels of dissolved oxygen and high temperature.