By James C. Robinson

This creation to boring differential and distinction equations is appropriate not just for mathematicians yet for scientists and engineers besides. particular ideas tools and qualitative techniques are lined, and plenty of illustrative examples are incorporated. Matlab is used to generate graphical representations of options. various routines are featured and proved recommendations can be found for lecturers.

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**Additional resources for An Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations **

**Example text**

2 (T) The Mean Value Theorem says that if f is differentiable on an interval [a, b] then f (a) − f (b) = (b − a) f (c) for some c ∈ (a, b). Suppose that f (x) is differentiable with | f (x)| ≤ L for a ≤ x ≤ b. Use the Mean Value Theorem to show that for a ≤ x, y ≤ b we have | f (x) − f (y)| ≤ L|x − y|. 1) under the assumption that | f (x, t) − f (y, t)| ≤ L|x − y|. 1). Write down the differential equation satisﬁed by z(t) = x(t) − y(t), and hence show that d 2 |z| = 2z[ f (x(t), t) − f (y(t), t)].

If we substitute this guess in and it works, then it must in fact be the solution since we know that there is no other. We have already used this implicitly in Chapter 1 when we just checked that our solution N (t) = Ns ek(t−s) worked, and then assumed that it must be the only solution. As with existence, uniqueness is not automatic. 3) dx/dt = x has an inﬁnite number of solutions. The ‘obvious’ solution is x(t) = 0 for all t ≥ 0. But if you choose any value of c > 0, the function xc (t) = 0 (t − c)2 /4 t ≤c t >c also satisﬁes the equation.

11. A recent UK campaign to persuade drivers to cut their speed in town from 35 mph to 30 mph. mpg makes the point more forcefully. Exercises 37 does the shell travel before it hits the ground? 8 In Dallas on 22 November 1963, President Kennedy was assassinated; by Lee Harvey Oswald if you do not believe any of the conspiracy theories. Oswald ﬁred a Mannlicher–Carcano riﬂe from approximately 90 m away. The sight on Oswald’s riﬂe was less than ideal; if the bullet travelled in a straight line after leaving the riﬂe (at a velocity of roughly 700 m/s) then the sight aimed about 10 cm too high at a target 90 m away.