By Ryszard Kubiak; Roman Rudzinski; Stefan Sokolowski

A characteristic of contemporary complex computing is the practical method of programming. during this ebook, the authors current an advent to the math which underline sensible programming, emphasizing the certainty of definition and specification--a prerequisite of excellent programming and challenge fixing with a working laptop or computer. The booklet is self-contained, requiring a low point of mathematical sophistication and will be used as an creation to the math of programming.

Provides an creation to the practical method of programming**Emphasizes the matter to be solved, now not the programming language**Takes the view that each one laptop courses are a definition of a function**Includes workouts for every chapter**Can be used as a pre-programming language creation to the maths of computing.

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**Extra resources for An introduction to programming with specifications : a mathematical approach**

**Example text**

The operation applies to expressions of any kind, not necessarily only to LETs. 3) e2[ei/x] where e\ and e2 are any expressions and χ is a variable. 3) is the expression e 2 with all free occurrences of χ replaced by e\. For instance, (a + 6 ) [ ( c + l ) / 6 ] = a + ( c + l ) (Vn : Nat. (3x η > k)[l/k] : Real, x 2 = (Vn : Nat. = 0)[0/x] = (3x η > 1) 2 : Real, x = 0) Note that there are no free xs in the last formula. A warning regarding the operation of substitution is due. This is a syntactic operation and the value of the resulting expression may depend not only on the value of the expression in which the substitution is performed, but also on its syntactic shape.

This is a syntactic operation and the value of the resulting expression may depend not only on the value of the expression in which the substitution is performed, but also on its syntactic shape. In other words, even if e\ and e 2 are equal for any valuations the values of e\\ejx\ and e2[e/x] are not necessarily equal (see Exercise 3 to this chapter). 3. Reduction 45 laws The first law of the calculus of LETs allows you, in case of doubt, to rename bound variables in an expression to separate them from any other variables in the expression.

7) is w h e t h e r t h e a c t u a l definition is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h 2 : t h e t y p i n g , t h a t is w h e t h e r 2 n + s m ( y ) is a n a t u r a l n u m b e r for a n y η : Nat. T h e r e are t w o dangers: f u n c t i o n sin n o r m a l l y y i e l d s real rather t h a n inte ger values a n d , moreover, e v e n if t h e y h a p p e n t o b e integer t h e y m a y b e n e g a t i v e . It is left t o t h e reader t o see t h a t s(n) n e v e r t h e l e s s b e l o n g s t o Nat for a n y η : Nat a n d t h a t t h i s s is increasing as required b y ( 2 .