By P. G. Quilty (auth.), Dr. K. R. Kerry, Professor Dr. G. Hempel (eds.)
Antarctic Ecosystems contains fifty five papers offered on the 5th Symposium on Antarctic Biology held less than the auspices of the clinical Committee on Antarctic learn (SCAR) in Hobart, Australia, 29 August - three September, 1988. either brief- and long term alterations in ecosystems and neighborhood constructions attributable to usual and human elements have been mentioned to aid comprehend the ecological approaches occurring in a altering atmosphere. the range of ecological elements has to be identified for the advance of reasonable tracking concepts and sound conservation practices.
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Additional info for Antarctic Ecosystems: Ecological Change and Conservation
One factor that may be influencing speciation at high latitudes is the prevalence of non-pelagic development. The type of development (pelagic versus non-pelagic) can often be determined in fossil gastropods from the structure of the protoconch. Detailed study of fossil gastropods has shown that species which reproduce without a pelagic larval phase tend to speciate more rapidly than those with pelagic larvae (reviewed by Jablonski and Lutz 1983). Indeed, it has recently been suggested that the explosive radiation of the cheilostome Bryozoa in the Cenomanian and after may have been triggered by the evolution of brooded non-pelagic larvae (Taylor 1988).
Limnol Oceanogr 24:799-801 Suren A (1990) Microfauna associated with algae mats in melt ponds of the Ross Ice Shelf. Polar Biology 10: 329-336 Swithinbank C (1970) Ice movement in the McMurdo Sound area of Antarctica. Proc Int Symp Antarctic Glaciological Exploration, Hannover, New Hampshire, USA 1970, pp 472-482 Vincent WF (1988) Microbial ecosystems of Antarctica. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge Vincent WF, Howard-Williams C (1986a) Antarctic stream ecosystems: physiological ecology of a blue-green algal eplithon.
This is not to say that individual organisms migrate (any more than individual organisms evolve), for the time scale of significant temperature change is frequently longer than the life span of the individual. Rather it is a case of the boundaries of distribution shifting by processes including mortality of adults and differential survival of young stages. Thus over a long period of time (although often very rapidly on a geological time scale) the population shifts. When the fossil record is poor, it is then difficult to distinguish migration from extinction.