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By Pericles Markakis

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B. Unstable Acylated Anthocyanins ...................................... C. Stable Acylated Anthocyanins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D. Metal Complexes .................................................... E. Copigmentation ........................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F. Miscellaneous........................................................ III. Copigmentation in Some Detail ...........................................

D. Anticipation and Representation of Copigmentation ...................... E. A Model Experiment (Osawa and Ayukawa, 1980) . . . . . . . . . . . . F. •...................... IV. Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 42 42 43 44 46 49 49 50 50 50 51 55 58 58 65 65 I. INTRODUCTION As stated previously in this book (Chapter 1), anthocyanins are responsible for many of the red, purple, and blue colors exhibited by flowers, fruits, and other parts of plants.

T is the relaxation time associated with the transformation A ~ B under conditions where T K' = __ 8_ kha H + (28) the ftavylium cation is no longer stable (near neutrality). The relaxation time T is a measure of the lifetime of A. It increases when the acidity decreases. This phenomenon has always been attributed to the greater stability of the quinonoidal base A at higher pH values. In fact, it is only a kinetic stability. C. Copigmentation Effects We have emphasized the kinetic and thermodynamic competitions between the proton transfer reactions and the nucleophilic addition of water.

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