Download Applied High-Resolution Geophysical Methods: Offshore by Peter K Trabant PDF

By Peter K Trabant

The self-discipline encompassing using high-resolution geophysics for acquiring geoengineering survey information has developed swiftly over the last many years to develop into an interdisciplinary topic encompassing the fields of Geophysics, engineering, geology, marine geology, oceanography, and civil engineering. whereas high-resolution geophysical surveys are commonly played offshore at the present time, this has been so purely because the past due Nineteen Sixties. High-resolution geophysical equipment are hired within the offshore atmosphere to acquire a finished photo of the sea-floor mor­ phology and underlying shallow stratigraphy. the aim of the survey equipment is to aid within the layout and deploy of bottom-supported constructions equivalent to drilling and creation structures and pipelines. Drilling buildings and pipelines of metal and/or concrete became behemoths with admire to their dimension and the complexity in their layout as a way to face up to, for classes of as much as twenty-five years, an incredibly harsh setting, together with typhoon waves, powerful currents, risky sea­ flooring stipulations, and nice water depths. it really is for this reason of paramount value that the geometry and actual homes of the ocean ground be good understood for you to supply an sufficient starting place for the layout lives of such buildings. On land, engineering origin information frequently should be bought by means of visual view inspection and shallow borehole info, yet offshore the presence of the water column areas yes constraints on geoengineering investigations. High-resolution geophysical tools hired within the acquisition of geoengineering information offshore are outlined because the use of seismic assets and receivers that function at acoustic frequencies more than a hundred Hz.

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Extra info for Applied High-Resolution Geophysical Methods: Offshore Geoengineering Hazards

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As can be expected, the velocity increases with respect to depth, although it is usually slightly lower than the overlying water column just below the sea floor. This low-velocity layer (LVL) or weathered layer (when exposed to 2. Marine Geophysics: An Overview 19 VELOCITY of SOUND (metert I sec) 1400 1600 1800 2000 2200 :! 5 Typical curve of acoustic velocity variation with depth. {From Trabant, P. S. thesis, Texas A & M University, p. ) air) is usually due to the presence of gas or air within the sediment pore spaces.

GEOENGINEERING HAZARDS Hazards to the emplacement of drilling or other structures on and beneath the sea floor involve the suitability of the subbottom as a foundation, and the absence of structural (geologic), stratigraphic and other features that may impede their emplacement or operations. Typical hazards include: lateral variations of physical properties (such as occur along buried river beds), faults, and overpressured (relative to hydrostatic) gas-bearing sediment pockets, which may cause a blowout during drilling operations.

1 Photograph of modern echo sounder recording system. , Rahway, N . ) the return of a reflection or echo from the sea floor (fig. 3). To implement this simple operation a number of problems must be overcome. Among these are: 1. Noise, or unwanted sounds that mask the clarity of the returned echo. Noises are generated in the marine environment by organisms (fish, crustaceans, and cetaceans), by ship propellers (cavitation) , breaking seas, movement of the survey vessel's hull through the water, and even other acoustic systems.

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