By Rudolf Kingslake
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Additional info for Applied optics and optical engineering,Vol.IV
3 Ampliﬁers for Advanced Photonic Networks k + Gk Fk , = Gi Fi . (39) i=1 Equation (39) indicates that, in the compensated in-line repeater system, the noise ﬁgures for all ampliﬁers contribute equally to the total SNR degradation of the system. Furthermore, if the ampliﬁer gain and noise ﬁgure of all repeaters are identical with each other, Eq. (39) reduces to the simple formula Ftotal = GFk. (40) When allowable SNR degradation, Ftotal = [(S/N)0 /(S/N)R ], is given for a system and both the ampliﬁer gain G and noise ﬁgure F are known, the maximum number of cascaded repeaters kmax is easily calculated using Eq.
In the Brillouin ampliﬁer, the internal mode ﬂuctuation is the zero-point ﬂuctuation of an acoustic phonon mode . However, the acoustic phonon energy hνap is smaller than the thermal energy, so the thermal occupation number, nth = [exp(hνap /kB T) − 1]−1 , is much larger than one (typically about 500), and the Brillouin ampliﬁer operates high above the quantum limit . 4 System Applications of Optical Ampliﬁers In this section, we review the applications of optical ampliﬁers to ﬁber-optic communications systems.
G1 G2 · · · Gk−1 F1 1 ⎭ (37) F2 F3 + + ··· G1 G1 G2 Amp. repeater + k (S /N )0 Li G i . First, consider the case of Li = 1. Here, each ampliﬁer is connected in tandem without any loss, to create a composite high-gain ampliﬁer. The total noise ﬁgure is given by Amp. repeater +2 (S /N )1 ⎫ ⎬ i=1 Amp. repeater +1 (S /N )0 Fk + ···+ ⎧ ⎨k−1 (36) G1 Transmitter = kmax 100 Number of repeaters k Signal-to-noise ratio in an ampliﬁer repeater system  Ampliﬁers, Optical low-noise ﬁgure and succeeding ampliﬁers with high saturation output powers.