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By Rudolf Kingslake

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3 Amplifiers for Advanced Photonic Networks k + Gk Fk , = Gi Fi . (39) i=1 Equation (39) indicates that, in the compensated in-line repeater system, the noise figures for all amplifiers contribute equally to the total SNR degradation of the system. Furthermore, if the amplifier gain and noise figure of all repeaters are identical with each other, Eq. (39) reduces to the simple formula Ftotal = GFk. (40) When allowable SNR degradation, Ftotal = [(S/N)0 /(S/N)R ], is given for a system and both the amplifier gain G and noise figure F are known, the maximum number of cascaded repeaters kmax is easily calculated using Eq.

In the Brillouin amplifier, the internal mode fluctuation is the zero-point fluctuation of an acoustic phonon mode [1]. However, the acoustic phonon energy hνap is smaller than the thermal energy, so the thermal occupation number, nth = [exp(hνap /kB T) − 1]−1 , is much larger than one (typically about 500), and the Brillouin amplifier operates high above the quantum limit [39]. 4 System Applications of Optical Amplifiers In this section, we review the applications of optical amplifiers to fiber-optic communications systems.

G1 G2 · · · Gk−1 F1 1 ⎭ (37) F2 F3 + + ··· G1 G1 G2 Amp. repeater + k (S /N )0 Li G i . First, consider the case of Li = 1. Here, each amplifier is connected in tandem without any loss, to create a composite high-gain amplifier. The total noise figure is given by Amp. repeater +2 (S /N )1 ⎫ ⎬ i=1 Amp. repeater +1 (S /N )0 Fk + ···+ ⎧ ⎨k−1 (36) G1 Transmitter = kmax 100 Number of repeaters k Signal-to-noise ratio in an amplifier repeater system [11] Amplifiers, Optical low-noise figure and succeeding amplifiers with high saturation output powers.

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