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By A.L.G. Rees

A monograph of this measurement couldn't fake to be a entire account of the illness good country or its position in chemistry; it really is designed to stimulate curiosity and learn. Deviations from the elemental legislation of chemistry have been first studied intimately through physicists; their implications have been preferred at the moment through a handful of structural and inorganic chemists purely and, till lately, all yet overlooked by way of the actual chemists. doubtless the concept that is distasteful to these whose education in chemistry is classical, for it moves on the foundations of order in inorganic chemistry and as a result introduces problems into its knowing and instructing; it threatens, in spite of the fact that, to intervene into all stages of the chemistry of the forged country.

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11. 3 Squeezing the Fluctuations 13 There are many explanations for this surprising effect. The most direct explanation uses the concept of interference in phase space. 4 Interference in Phase Space This concept rests on a semiclassical interpretation of the quantum mechanical scalar product (x| V7) between two quantum states |x) and |^). It associates an area of overlap in phase space with this complex-valued probability amplitude (x\ ^}. Indeed, we represent the two quantum states \x) and |^) in phase space.

For the case of an ion interacting with a classical standing wave while it is moving in the trap the Hamiltonian of the total system is a generalization of the one of the Jaynes-Cummings-Paul model. When the extension of the vibratory ground state of the trap is small compared to the period of the light wave, that is in the Lamb-Dicke limit, this Hamiltonian reduces to that of the Jaynes-Cummings-Paul model. In this case this system of the ion stored in the Paul trap and interacting with the classical wave is a mechanical analogue of cavity QED situation.

Kimble, presently at Caltech (Pasadena). They showed the so-called vacuum Rabi splitting in the optical domain. Most recently they have used a high-Q optical cavity to measure the motion of atoms along a standing light wave. Individual atoms were dropped in the gravitational field from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) as shown in Fig. 15. Such a MOT uses forces imposed on the atom by the interaction between the dipole and the inhomogeneous magnetic field. After the trap has been switched off the atoms fall through the resonator.

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