By Zbigniew Ficek, Ryszard Tanaś
This booklet covers the most principles, equipment, and up to date advancements of quantum-limit optical spectroscopy and functions to quantum details, answer spectroscopy, measurements past quantum limits, dimension of decoherence, and entanglement. Quantum-limit spectroscopy lies on the frontier of present experimental and theoretical concepts, and is without doubt one of the parts of atomic spectroscopy the place the quantization of the sphere is vital to foretell and interpret the prevailing experimental effects. at the moment, there's an expanding curiosity in quantum and precision spectroscopy either theoretically and experimentally, as a result of major development in trapping and cooling of unmarried atoms and ions. This growth permits one to discover within the such a lot intimate aspect the ways that mild interacts with atoms and to degree spectral houses and quantum results with excessive precision. additionally, it permits one to accomplish refined checks of quantum mechanics at the unmarried atom and unmarried photon scale which have been not often even possible as ``thought experiments'' many years in the past.
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Experiments which measure frequency distributions of the field intensity involve a spectrum analyzer, usually a frequency tunable linear filter located in front of the detector. The spectrum is measured by detecting the transmitted field intensity as a function of the frequency of the spectral analyzer. In this chapter, we will introduce only the general definitions of optical spectra of stationary and nonstationary radiation fields, deferring a more detailed discussion of their calculations to the next chapter, when we consider the spectra of radiation fields emitted by atomic systems.
It represents the cross correlations (coherences) between different atomic transitions involving the common lower state |jn . This term reflects the fact that, as the system decays from the state |in , it drives the |kn state, and vice versa. This process involves various correlation functions Λˆ nij (t)Λˆ njk (t) which, as we shall see later, are not always real and need not be nonnegative. These correlation functions may create coherent superpositions of the atomic states with reduced and even suppressed decay rates .