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HEALTH EFFECTS exposure at which major health effects start to appear. LOAELs or NOAELs should also help in determining whether or not the effects vary with dose and/or duration, and place into perspective the possible significance of these effects to human health. The significance of the exposure levels shown in the Levels of Significant Exposure (LSE) tables and figures may differ depending on the user's perspective. Public health officials and others concerned with appropriate actions to take at hazardous waste sites may want information on levels of exposure associated with more subtle effects in humans or animals (LOAEL) or exposure levels below which no adverse effects (NOAELs) have been observed.

1 for nonexposed conditions. 5 at the highest exposure concentration, 4 ppm. 1 ppm versus about 22 blinks/minutes under nonexposed conditions). 6 ppm) for 4-hour periods preceded by a nonexposed period of two hours. Subjects were asked to assess “discomfort” on a 0–100 scale ranging from 0=no discomfort to 100=intolerable discomfort (scores between 1 and 33 were rated as “slight discomfort”). 6 ppm) never exceeded 18. 6 ppm; respective numbers of subjects reporting “conjunctival irritation and dryness in the nose and throat” were 3, 5, 15, and 15 of the 16 subjects exposed to each respective concentration.

1 Inhalation Exposure Formaldehyde vapors used in controlled-exposure inhalation studies can be generated by heating commercial formalin, aqueous solutions containing 30–50% formaldehyde by weight plus methanol or other substances to inhibit intrinsic polymerization, or by heating solid paraformaldehyde, a formaldehyde polymer. Unless noted otherwise, inhalation studies used in the preparation of this profile provided clear evidence that formaldehyde was the only added gas in the experimental atmosphere.

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